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“Refugees are people who cannot assume protection by their own states. In many refugees crisis of the modern era, ethnicity has been one, if not the major criterion according to which people have been denied the protection of their own governments.”
Ethnic conflict and refugees
Os anos de 2014 e 2015 caracterizaram-se por uma crescente consciencialização nos círculos políticos, meios de comunicação e na sociedade civil global da situação dos imigrantes no mundo. Os relatos de centenas de pessoas a morrer em naufrágios no Mediterrâneo; milhares de refugiados a escalar cercas de arame farpado erigidas na Hungria; milhares a viverem em acampamentos, em Calais, esperando para fugir através do Canal para o Reino Unido e navios repletos de refugiados rohingyas a serem empurrados de volta ao mar no Sudeste Asiático, publicitou sobremaneira a extensão global da crise.
The demand for organs massively exceeds supply.
One solution, in relation to some organs, such as kidneys, is to encourage donation by living people. That is discussed briefly above. Altruistic donation of, for instance, bone marrow or even a kidney by live donors is lawful in many jurisdictions, often, and particularly in the case of a significant sacrifice such as a kidney, after an extensive investigation by a regulatory body to check that the would-be donor is making the offer freely, and understands fully what is involved. But this obviously won’t work for hearts, lungs, and so on. If they are to be used at all, they have to be retrieved from dead bodies.
“Europe’s Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) today is like a house that was built over decades but only partially finished. When the storm hit, its walls and roof had to be stabilised quickly. It is now high time to reinforce its foundations and turn it into what EMU was meant to be: a place of prosperity based on balanced economic growth and price stability, a competitive social market economy, aiming at full employment and social progress. To achieve this, we will need to take further steps to complete EMU.”
Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century
A actual crise da União Europeia (UE) torna dolorosamente evidente que a sua história deve ser repensada, reformulada e reescrita. Está em jogo mais do que simplesmente fixar o registo do que foi realizado. Ao mesmo tempo, vasta e paroquialmente, a pesquisa existente sobre a UE não apenas define os parâmetros intelectuais actuais do seu objecto, mas fornece também a linguagem que dá forma à discussão, estabelecendo os contextos de formulação de políticas, orientação da acção política e abertura de novas fontes de legitimidade. Trata-se de um acontecimento que envolve duas causas especiais.
Negotiation processes in the WTO
The substance and evolution of the agenda of the WTO depend on to a large extent on the decision-making processes. Several of these decision-making procedures are themselves the product of negotiation. As we discovered in the previous texts, protocols on the negotiation of such rules are few and often result in the reliance on de facto, controversial processes of rule formation. But especially after the agenda is set, formal and informal negotiation processes are crucial in determining what goes into the final package. Without such protocols of negotiation in place, the raison d’être for the WTO - to provide a negotiating forum that facilitates multilateral trade liberalisation - would collapse. Of course, any negotiation is driven by the preferences of states, their domestic constituencies, and the individual negotiator's party to the deal. But the fact that countries engage in tariff reductions within the WTO matters: the WTO establishes certain rules of the game, which would not automatically come into existence and in whose absence different outcomes would ensue. Below, I examine the principal features of the negotiation process, and also provide examples of how negotiation minutiae can sometimes skew outcomes in favour of the already powerful in the WTO.